These objects are symbolic. This experience suppresses the animal desires and converts the animal qualities of man to human qualities. Can religion be considered as a way to unite mankind, or viewed as a way to segregate them. The early Portuguese who came to Africa saw that the Africans used to wear charms and amulets and so they gave the name feitico to such things forgetting that they themselves wore Rosary, crucifix and such like. Mineral is the elemental energy that invites us to remember, through ritual, who we are and why we are here. Read honest and unbiased product reviews from our users. The print version … Misleading terms used by the Western media and scholars to belittle ATR. (2nd ed. The symbols or emblems may fall into disuse or crumble or be replaced, but the spiritual entity represented never changes. ReferencesAwolalu, J. Omosade & Dopamu, P. Adelumo (1979). (viii) Polytheism: 'In West Africa,' said Parrinder, 'men believe in great pantheons of gods which are as diverse as the gods of the Greeks or the Hindus. This implies that African indigenous education was continuous throughout lifetime from childhood to old-age Mushi (2009) defines African indigenous education as a process of passing… The continued influence of traditional African religion is also evident in some aspects of daily life. The five elements of the Dagara, West Africa, Elemental immersion on the Overland Track, Tasmania, Shinto Moments on the Three Capes Track, Tasmania, The interplay of fire, water, eucalypts and light, The wondrous winds of Patagonia and Antarctica, Woman on Fire: Insights from an Elemental Career. Someday, this year will end! It is the most popular for decoration and can often be seen printed on cloth or stamped on pottery.The rapid spread of Pentecostal Christianity and fundamentalist Islam has greatly affected the role of indigenous religion in African society. It is hard to destroy its beliefs. Somé, a Dagara shaman, shares his vision for connecting with nature through rituals based on the five Dagara elements. Since then I have tracked down more books about the continent, especially on sub-Saharan Africa. Instead, myths are embedded and transmitted in ritual practice. Introduction For many decades, the concept of Supreme Being (God), divinities and ancestors (the living-dead) in African traditional religious thought has I’m pleased that Mr Somdah approached me. Every aspect of it cannot be described as original. The Nexus of Career Bureaucrats and Political Appointees, Haruna Iddrisu Is a Plagiarist Haunted by His Shady Past, How Selfishly John Dramani Mahama is Deliberately Playing Ghana into the Exploitation Agenda by the Western World, Endings for Beginnings: Reaching a Brexit Deal, Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade In Gold Coast: A General Overview. (I) Primitive: The New Webster Encylopedic Dictionary defines primitive as 'pertaining to the beginning or origin; original; first; old fashioned; characterized by the simplicity of old times'. It should be obvious from the dictionary meaning that this word cannot be appropriate in describing the religion of Africa or those who practise that religion. Folk religions are challenging to measure. Parrinder has remarked that the word fetish is a most ambiguous word, and the time has come for all serious writers and speakers to abandon it completely and finally. The religious beliefs, practices and the€human characteristics (such as love, power, knowledge) are transferred to an€speak of African Traditional Religion we mean the African Traditional Religion influences every area of an African life. African Traditional Religion is traditional because Africans were not converted into it like Christianity or Islam and others. Lightning and thunder are manifestations of the thunder god. Among such terms are; primitive, savage, fetishism, juju, heathenism, paganism, animism, idolatry, and polytheism. I and II. The fifth, aether, is important in some traditions. It has so much to teach us. Anthropologists and Sociologists like to justify their use of the word on the ground that the culture is adjudged to be that which is original in the history of the human race. It is embraced by Africans within and outside the continent despite the various ethnic religious practices and beliefs. Rych reminded me that in my first post on Africa I wrote that at some later time I would explore the shamanistic practices of the Dagara tribe in relation to the elements. This belief, just as in the case of the previous one, has a theological basis – the plurality of divinities ( polytheism ). One major difference between conventional, Western medicine and traditional African medicine, is the way of viewing illnesses and their treatments .Unlike its Western counter-part, traditional African medicine is said to take a holistic approach, which is based on the premise of interconnectedness, and often includes indigenous herbalism in its treatment. Fascinating material on other aspects of elemental Africa was unearthed during my search. But to say that the African Traditional Religion is animistic would be incorrect and racial. The symbol can be found throughout Ghana. Check Out These 5 Essential Elements of the Unique African Art. It is the religion that has been handed down from generation to generation by the forbears of the present generation of Africans. It is a religion whose historical founder is neither known nor worshipped; it is a religion that has no zeal for membership drive, yet it offers persistent fascination for Africans, young and old (1976: 275). Save up to 80% by choosing the eTextbook option for ISBN: 9781621898245, 1621898245. Does Membership of NDC Bestow Bravery on People? ", an essay by Joseph Omosade Awolalu, which appeared in the the journal "Studies in Comparative Religion", 1975 Winter (Vol. Many other insights can be found in his books. (vii) Idolatry: Idol means false god; and so idolatry is the worshipping of false gods or that which is not real. This is the complete text of "What is African Traditional Religion? Scorned at one time, the world is now re-discovering the beauty of this art form, as is evidenced by the increasing number of takers for the distinctive objects of art, which showcase the cultural values of different African regions. (spring, 1976).what is African Traditional Religion? This is why it is not appropriate to describe the African Traditional Religion as polytheistic. ...Elements of Religion James Morales REL-133 April 17, 2013 Joseph Becker Elements of Religion Religion is a way of life for much of mankind, and though all religions are not the same, do all religions do the same thing? It is only a means to an end. Read honest and unbiased product reviews from our users. Parrinder made this mistake because in his West African Religion he claimed that the Supreme God or Creator is 'sometimes above the gods, sometimes first among equals'. This will be discussed in more detail later (cf. I’m sure Mr. Somdah will be touched that you researched this post based on his request. The ‘Dagari’ (Dagara) tribe sits under the blue drawing pin in sub-Saharan Africa. A Holistic Approach . For example, P. A. Talbot in his Life in Southern Nigeria devoted three chapters to Juju among the Ibibio people and discussed the various divinities among them. 1999) Many writers used the word indiscriminately. ^ Best Book African American Religion A Confluent Of African Traditional Religion And Christianity ^ Uploaded By Patricia Cornwell, african american religion a confluent of african traditional religion and christianity paperback july 6 2015 by david musa author 34 out of 5 stars 2 ratings find many great new used options and get Our religion can be found in our Culture and therefore respect and uphold it. Find helpful customer reviews and review ratings for Elements of African Traditional Religion: A Textbook for Students of Comparative Religion at Amazon.com. 2 hours ago, When You Run Your Own Race, Life Won’t Fail You, Gabby Otchere writes on NDC Presidential Election Conundrum, Who wears the robe? In this work we shall look at these five elements as the philosophical foundation of African Traditional Religion. These beliefs have in consequence influenced the development of thecorresponding religious practices, which we are going to describe very briefly. The map illustrates the large number of tribes in the continent, each with their own way of life. ATR affects the way of life of most Africans. It is puts us back on our spiritual track by consuming that which stands between us and our purpose. But when we have said this, we also need to add that it would be wrong to categorize the whole religion as 'animism'. During the 17th century, European settlers came near the Cape of Good Hope. Emeka C. Ekeke 1 and Dr. Chike A. Ekeopara 2 1 Lecturer, Department of Religious Studies, University of … Thus in African Traditional Religion, sacrifices of which of ever type are basically and primarily made by man to create or restore harmonious relationships within the horizontal and vertical dimensions of the cosmic order. The Dagara rituals associated with the elements call on our six senses. Religion is an agent of socialization and social control: Parsons viewed that religion is one of the most important agents of socialization and social control. The boundaries of Burkina Faso and other African countries have mostly been imposed by Colonial rule. Juju is, therefore, one of the misleading and derogatory terms used by investigators out of either sheer prejudice or ignorance. Water brings cleansing, reconciliation, purification and peace-making. 1. Modern Ghana will not be responsible or liable for any inaccurate or incorrect statements contained in this article. 2 hours ago, You have enough reason to thank the Lord — Evangelist Atats... For example, the Odum tree is not an ordinary tree; it is believed to be inhabited by a spirit; the Volta lake (in Ghana) is believed to be more than an ordinary river because the spirit dwells in it and this makes the river efficacious in many respects, especially during barrenness. I also have several books on individual African countries, regions and tribes. It is a religion that links the people who now live it and practice it with their forebears. unity. The five element teachings of the Dagara have been embraced in the West. Juju: The word juju is French in origin and it means a little 'doll or toy'. The five elements of fire, water, earth, minerals and nature are an essential part of his, and their, story. We should also add that there is an element of savagery in every one of us and it should not be made the exclusive trait of a particular people. The word Traditional is therefore meant to distinguish it from other religions that came into Africa through missionary zeal and propagation. 10, No. African Traditional Religion is referred to the diverse beliefs that are included in various ethnic regions in Africa.The religion is characterized mainly by: 1.Supreme Being The African societies and ethnic communities believed in a supreme being who had different names for different communities.The people worshiped this God through singing,offering sacrifices,dancing,dedications … It is found in most religions like Christianity, Buddhism, and Shintoism etc. The origin of the divinities can be traced; the divinities can be represented; they are limited in their power; they came into being by the power of the Supreme Being who is unique, wholly other and faultless and who owes His existence to no one. Authority is not seen as something secular but is regarded as a sacred trust. Abstract. The Yoruba, for example, never rank the Supreme Being, Olodimave with the divinities (orisa), neither do the Akan confuse Nyame with the divinities (abosom). Our remarks are the same as we indicated under primitive. (v) Paganism and Heathenism: We choose to treat Paganism and Heathenism together because the meanings applied to them are similar, if not identical. Each of them has a meaning beyond itself, and therefore is not an end in itself. By the 19th century the Arabs moved to East and Central Africa. (VI). But Rattray corrected this wrong notion of the early investigators when he said: Fetishes may form part of an emblem of god, but fetish and god are in themselves distinct, and are so regarded by the Ashanti; the main power, or the most important spirit in a god comes directly or indirectly from 'Nyame', the Supreme God, whereas the power or spirit in a fetish comes from plants or trees, and sometimes directly or indirectly from fairies, forest monsters, witches, or from some sort of unholy contact with death; a god is the god of the many, the Family, the Clan, or the Nation. “Although Christianity and Islam have added distinct elements to African religions, each Give five characteristics of culture (5 marks) C. Discuss the importance of festivals to nation building (20 marks) Olodumare: God in Yoruba Belief. It is a religion that evolved from the personal experiences of the peoples of Africa. African Traditional Religions FOUNDED: 200,000–100,000 b.c.e. The other four elements are used to describe the arts intuitive, religious and aesthetic value to the peoples of the varying African regions. In my post on Elemental Places I felt that the Okavango Delta in Botswana was defined by the element of water, another way to look at Africa through the lens of the elements. Presumably these terms are used in an attempt to distinguish between enlightenment and barbarity. I have looked through these to see if I can discover more about the five elements of the Dagara people, and the role they play in their shaman teachings, with no success. I’m still trying to find out what the numbers mean. More detailed descriptions of the five elements are found in Somé’s book ‘The Healing Wisdom of Africa‘. It should be noted that any attempt to generalize about the nature of “African religions” risks wrongly implying that there is homogeneity among all Their descendants moved to present day South Afri… (III) Fetishism: Linguists claim that the word is of Portuguese origin. African Traditional religion (ATR) is one of the world religions with a great people and a great past. State And Briefly Explain Four Elements Of African Traditional Religion (10 Marks) B. These five features are belief in God, belief in divinities, belief in spirits, belief in the ancestors and belief in the practice of magic and medicine. From our own study of the African Traditional Religion, we find there are unmistakably elements of animism. ThE oRAL TRADiTion. It is a colour version, with slight modifications, of the Medicine Wheel illustrated in Somé’s book ‘The Healing Wisdom of Africa‘. This has created real confusion as to what an This provides another example of the interest in these teachings and how they are being tailored to western ways. This version of the Dagara Medicine Wheel comes from the SlideShare presentation created by the Ancestral Wisdom Bridge Foundation. It is largely written in the peoples' myths and folktales, in their songs and dances, in their liturgies and Shrines and in their proverbs and pithy sayings. Prayers are said whenever need arises.2 Belief that everything on earth has a … The purpose of this study was to critically examine three different approaches to educational provision in Zimbabwe during the pre-colonial, colonial and post-colonial periods. These five elements he called the structures of African Traditional Religion, while Awolalu and Dopamu see them as the features of West African Traditional Religion (1979: 32-35). A news article entitled 'Sudan foes sign wealth deal' goes on to state that '...it sets out how they will share the revenues, mostly from oil, after 20-year civil war between Muslim north and Christian and animist south..'(http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/3374637.stm ).N/B: Animist was even spelt with small 'a' in the news article. A. The question is which God is the false God? Traditional African art is striking in its presentation and objectives. Mbiti regards African Traditional Religion(s) (ATR(s)) as monotheism and as a praeparatio evangelica, and maintains that the Christian God is the same as the God worshipped in ATR(s). The purpose of this is to help to orient a person who would like to work in the context of Africa. Religious duties are carried out by a variety of religious lead- ers. African music - African music - Musical structure: In Africa it is unrealistic to separate music from dance or from bodily movement. The five elements are Fire (red, south), Water (blue, north), Earth (yellow, centre), Mineral (white, west) and Nature (green, east). A fetish is generally personal to its owner. Religion in Igbo traditional society partakes fully of all the features of world traditional religion, including its beliefs, sacred myths, oral qualities, strong appeal to the hearts of adherents, high degree of ritualization, and possession of numerous participatory personages such as officiating elders, kings, priests, and diviners. In what sense can we describe the people as old fashioned or describe their religion as simple? The broad range of environments and influences across the length and breadth of Africa have led to diverse cultures including the Egyptians and the Bushmen of the Kalihari. African Religion and its Influence on Christianity and Islam Traditional African religion has been the basis of spirituality for the people of Africa. It was not imported into Africa neither was it preached to Africans rather 'each person in Africa was born into it, lives it, practices, and is proud to make it his own' (Awolalu and Dopamu, 1979: 28). There may be an element of this in the day-to-day life of the Africans, but it is incorrect to describe it all as fetishism. African Traditional religion (ATR) is one of the world religions with a great people and a great past. The name of the religion of Africa is none of the above misleading terms but African Traditional Religion or African Traditional Religions or African Indigenous Religion. Touch is particularly important to the Earth ritual. The number of traditional elements in medieval alchemy varies from 4, 5, or 8. Malidoma Patrice Somé was born in the village of Dano in Burkina Faso. African indigenous education was a lifelong process of learning where by a person progressed through predetermined stages of life of graduation from cradle to grave. These five features are belief in God, belief in divinities, belief in spirits, belief in the ancestors and belief in the practice of magic and medicine. The books are compelling reading. I found it very interesting to read about the relationship the Dagara tribe have with the elemental forces. It reminds me that there is so much to learn about the planet, and the people with whom we share it. Religion 20 [1990] contains some articles on the study of African Religions that are worth reading. A heathen, according to the New Webster Encyclopedic Dictionary, is a pagan; one who worships idols or does not acknowledge the true God; a rude, barbarous and irreligious person. All trademarks and copyrights on this page are owned by their respective owners. 2 Wrong ideas: African Religion is ancestor worship. . London: Sheldon Press, 1976). Where to look for and find African Tradition Religion? It is not a fossil religion (a thing of the past) but a religion that Africans today have made theirs by living it and practicing it. Today, the countries of Africa contain a wide variety of religious beliefs, and statistics on religious affiliation are difficult to come by. Despite influences from the missionaries and Arab traders, 6% of the Malawian population still hold on to their traditional African beliefs that focuses on belief in a supreme being, spirits, veneration of the death, use of magic as well as traditional witchcraft. (IV). Through various religious experiences he forgets the worldly life and problems. This book highlights and discusses the common elements which introduce African Traditional Religion as one unified religion and not a collection of religions. • It is found in rituals, ceremonies and festivals of the people: Birth, giving of names, circumcision, initiation ceremonies, marriage, funerals, harvest festival, need … Earth, the central element, is the mother who is inviting us to come home to community and the earth, our true home. Needs to be emphasized that the lack of touch is the religion that links the people who now live and! Iii ) fetishism: Linguists claim that the five elements as equal opposite! Nature through rituals based on his request was one of the word juju is French in origin and it a... Practices, which we are and why we are going to describe the arts intuitive, religious and value! Belittle ATR examine some of these words and bring out their connotations the 17th century, settlers. 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